Stocks and Shares

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Now that you have started investing, it’s important to understand what you are investing in. On Bumper, you can either invest directly in a company (like Apple or Nike) or in an ETF. We’ll discuss the first option in this Bumper Bite.


When you invest directly into a company, you are trading money in exchange for stock. This stock represents partial ownership of the company. If the company becomes more valuable, your stock becomes more valuable. If the company becomes less valuable, your stock becomes less valuable.


How do you determine what percentage of the company you own? Investors do this by keeping track of shares. Essentially, shares are slices of ownership of the company. For example, if company A to Z is divided into 10 billion shares. If you owned one share, you would own 1/10 billion of the company. That’s not a lot, but what if A to Z was worth over $2 trillion?


Doing some simple math, you can find that each share of A to Z is worth about $200.


Stocks are given various classifications based on their risk and growth potential. The most common classifications are Blue Chip, Value, Growth, and Income stocks. 

  • Blue-chip stocks are shares in large, well-known companies with a solid history of growth. They generally pay dividends.
  • Value stocks have a low price-to-earnings (PE) ratio, meaning they are cheaper to buy than stocks with a higher PE. Value stocks may be growth or income stocks, and their low PE ratio may reflect the fact that they have fallen out of favor with investors for some reason. People buy value stocks in the hope that the market has overreacted and that the stock’s price will rebound.
  • Growth stocks have earnings growing at a faster rate than the market average. They rarely pay dividends and investors buy them in the hope of capital appreciation. A start-up technology company is likely to be a growth stock.
  • Income stocks pay dividends consistently. Investors buy them for the income they generate. An established utility company is likely to be an income stock.

As we mentioned earlier, you can also invest in ETFs on Bumper. We’ll talk about ETFs next.

Source: Investopedia | Stocks

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Disclosure: This is not an offer, solicitation of an offer, or advice to buy or sell securities, or open a brokerage account in any jurisdiction where Alpaca is not registered (Alpaca is registered only in the United States). All investments are subject to investment risks, including possible loss of the principal amount invested.
Disclosure: Alpaca does not make recommendations with regard to fractional share trading, whether to use fractional shares at all, or whether to invest in any specific security. A security's eligibility on the list of fractional shares available for trading is not an endorsement of any of the securities, nor is it intended to convey that such stocks have low risk. Fractional share transactions are executed either on principal or riskless principal basis, and can only be bought or sold with market orders during market orders.
Equip Solutions, Inc. ("Bumper") and Alpaca Securities LLC ("Alpaca") are not affiliated and neither are responsible for the liabilities of the other.

Technology is offered by Equip Solutions, Inc.

Brokerage services are provided by Alpaca Securities LLC ("Alpaca”), member FINRA, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AlpacaDB, Inc. Clearing services are provided by Velox Clearing LLC (Velox) and Vision Financial Markets LLC (Vision). All three are members of the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC), which protects securities customers of its members up to $500,000 (including $250,000 for claims for cash) per customer. Explanatory brochure available upon request or at www.sipc.org.

This is not an offer, solicitation of an offer, or advice to buy or sell securities, or open a brokerage account in any jurisdiction where Alpaca is not registered (Alpaca is registered only in the United States).

View Alpaca's disclosures at: https://alpaca.markets/disclosures

Alpaca does not make recommendations with regard to fractional share trading, whether to use fractional shares at all, or whether to invest in any specific security. A security’s eligibility on the list of fractional shares available for trading is not an endorsement of any of the securities, nor is it intended to convey that such stocks have low risk. Fractional share transactions are executed either on a principal or riskless principal basis, and can only be bought or sold with market orders during normal market hours.

The content on this website is for illustrative and informational purposes only and any historical returns, expected returns or projections are hypothetical in nature. Investing involves risk & investments may lose value, including the loss of principal. Past performance does not guarantee future returns or results. Before investing, carefully consider your investment objectives, time horizon, and overall risk tolerance as well as the information stated in the product offering prospectuses.